Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) is a plant that is related to the sunflower family but has none of the charm and beauty of those sunny-nodding flower heads. Seeds buried at a depth of 5 inches may remain viable for up to three years. Clemson University. Soil disturbance can stimulate germination and a flush of new plants. The early leaves of its young plant are also oval with a spine-like fringe. Seeds usually germinate in the spring and fall. Each plant has a fleshy taproot. Cutting off only the flower stalks will merely make the plant sprout another shoot; also, cut flower stalks left on the ground are likely to produce viable seeds, even after they are cut. The white pappus “parachute”or “hair”, is about ¾ inch long (20+ mm). Seeds on the surface typically do not survive for more than a year; seeds buried may remain viable for up to three years. For widespread control, mowing twice per year has been effective in reducing the population by preventing seed heads. Weedy characteristics: Bull thistle is highly competitive and aggressive, and forms dense colonies that choke out native vegetation important to wildlife and pollinators. Remove stems from site if plants are cut or pulled with flowers. Encourage bull thistle seed-head gall flies to live and breed on bull thistle plants. Chemical treatment is most effective on the first year rosettes of bull thistle plants. Bull thistle reproduces only by seed, and indi-vidual plants set seed only once before dying. Chemical control: For information on herbicides and recommendations for control, please see the Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook. Bull thistle - Cirsium vulgare or Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense).As a biennial it reaches flowering stage in year 2 before dying off. Large individuals may produce tens of thousands of wind-dispersed seeds. Overgrazed pastures are susceptible to bull thistle encroachment, and it can sometimes form dense stands that reduce productivity and stocking levels. Coarse hairs of bull thistle (right). Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. The goldfinch is particularly attracted to the thistle. The next emerging leaves … Most King County offices will be closed on December 25, for Christmas Day. Cirsium silvaticum Tausch. Bull thistle seeds are numerous and straw-colored. It has a central taproot so does not spread by rhizomes. Hand-pull and dispose of flowering plants in trash to prevent seed spread. Nyjer seed also commonly known as niger or thistle seed is popular with many backyard bird species, particularly seed-eating birds and winter finches. After spraying, wait two weeks or more to give the herbicide time to work. Around here it’s not too hard to find a thistle plant, and our main variety is common Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare). For grassy areas, it is best to use a selective broadleaf herbicide to keep the competitive grasses intact. The leaves of a bull thistle are large, woody and are flatted and basal rosette during their firs… All biennial thistles considered noxious are native to Europe or Eurasia, and were introduced into North America as seed contaminants. The second true leaf is dark green and covered densely with white hairs on the upper surface. Bull thistle might be confused with native thistles as well as more serious noxious weeds such as milk thistle, a Class A noxious weed in Washington, and Canada thistle, a Class C noxious weed that is much more difficult to control. Contaminated hay is a primary means of spread of this species so be careful to purchase weed free hay or watch closely for new plants in the areas hay is kept or spread. Also, goats and sheep have both been used for grazing management of bull thistle. Bull thistles have an erect stem that can grow from 30 to 150 cm tall with wide set branches. Bull thistle control can be manual or chemical with an emphasis on seed co… Cultural/grazing: Bull thistle is not as competitive in a well-managed pasture and regular cutting combined with good pasture management can reduce bull thistle to a manageable level. Mowing can be effective, but make sure the plants do not flower. Additionally, native thistles are noticeably less prickly than weedy, non-native thistles, like bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) or Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). Caution: Plants have spines along leaves and stems. The Bull thistle also provides seeds to granivores (consumers of grains and seeds) such as goldfinches. Contaminated hay is a primary means of spread of this species so be careful to purchase weed free hay or watch closely for new plants in the areas hay is kept or spread. Seeds spread by wind and have high dispersal rates. If your site has animals grazing, please read instructions carefully on grazing restrictions. (When we first moved here, the place was overrun with thistles. These bur-like seeds cling to animals, pant legs, machinery, etc. Mechanical control: Mowed thistles will produce new branches from basal buds but close cutting or cutting twice per season will usually prevent seed production and reduce the population over time. Because control is not required in the county, it is on the list of Non-Regulated Noxious Weeds for King County. Herbicide Use. Become a certified small business contractor or supplier, Find certified small business contractors and suppliers, Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook, King County bull thistle best management practices, University of Washington Burke Museum Herbarium Image Collection - Cirsium vulgare, Branching, erect biennial, 2 to 6 feet tall, Rosettes form in first year, flowering stems the second, Long, sharp spines on the leaves at the midrib and the tips of the lobes, Leaves are deeply lobed and hairy - there are coarse hairs on leaf tops, making leaf feel rough to the touch, and woolly hairs on the underside, Leaf bases extend down onto stems and form spiny wings along the stems, Flower heads are "gumdrop" shaped and spines extend all around the base of the flower heads. The Bull thistle was used by early humans as a warm medicinal tea. Melissa King began writing in 2001. Cultivation and tilling can also be effective to control bull thistle. On smaller plants, the whole stem and branches are spiny-winged. Bull thistle can reach a height of 3 feet. Bull thistle is a biennial plant that can grow up to six feet tall. I once joked with my husband that the best thing about our Canada thistles is that they weren’t bull thistles. It has a deep taproot, which makes manual pulling a challenge. Bull thistle can be controlled most effectively by cutting the root several inches below the ground. Flowers and fruit. An individual plant can produce up to 100,000 seeds. Seeds remain viable in the soil for up to 10 years. If cut too early before flowering, plants may re-sprout and flower again that season. It is a prickly biennial that grows freely in disturbed soils, pastures, ditches, roadsides and unmanaged spaces. Of course, your battle with the plant will only be as effective as your neighbors because of the travel ability of the downy seeds. The stubborn plant can arise like Lazarus from the ashes if hand pulling leaves behind any of the root. It's no wonder this species might take over a pasture in a few short years. Even horses will help by picking out many of the nectar-rish flowers and eating them before they go to seed. Seeds. The outer rim of the flower is green and spiny itself, and contains many disk shaped flowers that are reddish-purple. What is bull thistle? Bull thistle prefers sunny, open areas and can tolerate a wide range of conditions, from moist to dry soils, and is typically found in disturbed areas such as roadsides, trails, logged areas, vacant land, pastures and cultivated land. Sign up to get all the latest gardening tips! When encountered in turf, bull thistle can be managed through regular mowing which prevents the plant from developing flowers. It is a free-seeding weed with a prickly demeanor and rapid spread. This gall fly’s larvae induce and feed on gall tissue in the developing bull thistle seedhead, reducing seed production up to 60%. …and without the pappus. Weed Photos: Courtesy of Dr. Lambert McCarty. Roots. In this video, I show you how to identify Bull Thistle Seeds in the Fall. Bull thistles are biennial and only bloom every two years. This thistle produces a lot of seeds that have small feathers and are fixed to the base by means of a ring until they mature. https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/cirvul/all.html Bull thistle is a Class C Noxious Weed in Washington, first listed in 1988. The seeds are short‐lived and most on or near the soil surface do not remain viable for more than a year. These attach themselves to any object that brushes against them. However, it has been shown to have limited effectiveness. Digging the plant out with a spade or hori hori is the best approach to mechanical bull thistle control. Thistles are found throughout the United States and Canada. A tough weed to kill, the flower heads on thistles possess thousands upon thousands of thistle seeds, which allows them to spread at an exponential rate both above and below the soil. Urophora stylat… The seeds are one tenth to two tenths of an inch long, with plume-like bristles on the tip. Seeds usu-ally germinate in the spring and fall and have a 95% germination rate. and get spread around with abandon. Bull thistle reproduces only by seed. Because bull thistle is so widespread, property owners in King County are not required to control it and we are not generally tracking infestations. If only one cutting a year is possible, cut when plants are in bud for best results. If the bull thistle population is large enough to support a good sized population of this insect, it can be an effective way to reduce seed production of the bull thistle. A single field thistle seed with pappus. What's more, one individual plant can produce up to 5,000 seeds, making it quite prolific. Though bull thistle is difficult to contain, frequent mowing before it flowers can help keep it … Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) is a plant that is related to the sunflower family but has none of the charm and beauty of those sunny-nodding flower heads. As mentioned earlier, they thrive in disturbed soils.) Note: Chemical control should only be used as a last resort, as organic approaches are more environmentally friendly. The roots of this plant are taproots. Writer Bio. Thistles that are actively growing and in the rosette to flower stage of growth can be controlled with a post-emergence herbicide application. We can provide advice on how to control bull thistle, but there is generally no legal requirement to do so. Musk thistle and bull thistle are biennials causing major problems in perennial grass crops including pastures, roadsides, conservation reserve and fence rows. Red to purple, usually solitary flower heads consisting of only disk flowers are … Bull thistle spreads by seeds. Sign up for our newsletter. The plant has colonized much of North America and is a pest plant in the garden and in agriculture. Learn how to get rid of bull thistle and prevent this prolific weed from taking over your garden. Carduus nemoralis E.H.L.Krause. To contact staff, see the Noxious Weed Control Program Directory, send an email, or call 206-477-WEED (206-477-9333). As the stem gets thicker, the wings start drying and disappearing. Biological control: The bull thistle seed head gall fly (Urophora stylata) lays eggs on closed flower buds in June and July. For this reason, bull thistle removal is a priority among farmers and meticulous gardeners. Knowing which birds eat Nyjer can help birders choose the best birdseed and appropriate feeders for their backyard flock. In agricultural situations, the introduction of a bull thistle seed head gall fly has been proposed as a biological agent. This plant bears leaves that end in extended, very sharp thorns and are beige in colour. Stems. Tall Thistle lives up to its name, growing up to seven feet in height. Comparatively, Canada thistle is a perennial that reproduces through underground rhizomes and wind-blown seeds. In addition to attracting finches, it also attracts chickadees, siskins, and other small songbirds. The seed of bull thistle remains viable for only a few years, but structures similar to those on dandelion seeds enable new bull thistles to drift downwind into the park. Bull thistle control can be manual or chemical with an emphasis on seed control. Bull thistle plants can produce approximately 7000 seeds. By: Bonnie L. Grant, Certified Urban Agriculturist. Not only does the goldfinch pull the seeds out to eat; it also uses the thistle down (the pappus) to line its nest. Harvest Most seeds germinate rapidly, usually in the spring and fall. See the biological control page for more information. Other Info: Similar to Canadian thistle, the more robust bull thistle was introduced to the United States in the 1800’s from Europe and Asia, and has now spread to 42 states, being declared a noxious weed in 16. Public and private landowners are not required to control infestations of bull thistle that occur on their property in King County. Thistle seed bird food is great for year-round feeding. More more effective control, cut plants with a sharp shovel at 1-2 inches below the soil surface prior to flowering. Spiny-winged, hairy stems elongate during the second year, often branched up to 7 feet tall. Pennington Premium Thistle (Nyjer) Bird Seed is the single best seed for attracting colorful finches, including Goldfinches. The seeds survive in soil for more than 10 years. Cirsium vulgare, the spear thistle, bull thistle, or common thistle, is a species of the Asteraceae genus Cirsium, native throughout most of Europe (north to 66°N, locally 68°N), Western Asia (east to the Yenisei Valley), and northwestern Africa ( Atlas Mountains ). Do not leave cut stems of flowering bull thistle on the ground because they are likely to form viable seed after they are cut. Bull thistle seed production is impacted by the seedhead gall fly, Urophora stylata. In summer the plant grows a scented flower that resembles a spiny globe topped with fringed pink petals. The seeds are wind dispersed, and they’re liable to pop up in any corner of our land that gets decent sun. Bull thistle may also dominate forest clear cuts and reduce growth of tree seedlings. The main stem of this wild edible is firm and thorny. Casual removal with this method is likely to leave behind the genesis of a plant in spite of the foliar amputation. Again, that big Bull Thistle on the Hilton Pond Center roadside formed 50-plus flower heads--each capable of producing 250 seeds--meaning just that individual plant is theoretically capable of disseminating 12,000 seeds! It is a prickly biennial that grows freely in disturbed soils, pastures, ditches, roadsides and unmanaged spaces. Seeds germinate rapidly and are spread by wind. In order to reduce the seed population, cut off the seed head and tuck it into a sack to keep the fluffy seeds from dispersing. This insect will not get rid of the bull thistle, however, just reduce its impact. Clemson, SC. This thistle plant I’m testing is a bull thistle, and the spines are huge and rigid. After hatching, the larvae burrow into the seed-prodcuing tissues to feed, forming galls and reducing seed production. There is also a weevil that is an effective control agent, but it can also affect desired thistle species. Bull thistle thrives in sunny areas in a variety of soil types and conditions. Flower Seed Head. Take care to remove the entire fleshy taproot for best results. Bull thistle grows in disturbed areas such as pastures, roadsides and ditches. When roasted, the thistle's seeds serve as a coffee substitute. Reproduction is performed only through the seeds. The flowers are located at the end of stems covered in spiny hairs. There are several herbicides that are effective on bull thistle, but it is important to carefully match the product with your site, local conditions and regulations, and other weed and land management issues, and always follow the label directions for the product you are using. Seedling: Cotyledons of the bull thistle are oval-shaped, being broadest at the apex. Bull thistle starts life as a spiny leaved rosette. They grow from seed the first season as a rosette (a taproot with a cluster of leaves on the soil surface). Bull thistles (Cirsium vulgare) are exactly that – bullish. A common type of weed most homeowners and gardeners hate to see sprouting up on their turf is thistle. The plant has the ability to produce around 5,000 seeds in a season. Bull thistle plants are native to Western Asia, North America and parts of Europe. Pull thistles before they bloom so their seeds don't spread in the wind. 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Prevention: Bull thistle only reproduces by seed so prevention of seeding and takign care not to spread seeds are key to preventing new infestations. The types of sprays used in agricultural scenarios are dicamba, glyphosate or 2,4D. The species name, altissimum, means “the tallest.”It is a biennial with a tap root, not a rhizomatous root like some agressive, non-native thistles (i.e. Biennials require portions of two growing seasons to reproduce. For more information, see Noxious Weed Lists and Laws or visit the website of the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. principle to bull thistle control is preventing seed production. Seed/ Fruit Size: The cleaned seed itself (no pappus) is about 3/16 inch wide (2 mm) and 13/32 inch long (4 mm) and reminds me of a banana pepper in shape. They are dispersed by wind. Wildflowers Of WisconsinWild… The bull thistle is a biennially growing plant. Program offices are located at 201 S. Jackson St., Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98104. The plant has colonized much of North America and is a pest plant in the garden and in agriculture. Pasture Thistle, also called Field Thistle, is a biennial or short-lived perennial. Milk thistle has a mild flavor that turns bitter as the plant matures. Bull thistle rosette (left). Read about the presence and treatment of bull thistle after the 2012 Reading Fire. Bull thistle is distasteful to most grazing animals, giving the thistle a competitive edge. The flowers are produced at the ends of the tangled stem growth and last for several weeks before producing tiny striped seeds capped with white downy hairs. Biennial thistles, such as musk (Carduus nutans L.), plumeless (Carduus acanthoides L.) and bull thistle [Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore], are not as difficult to control as the perennial thistle species, but spread rapidly and can become severe problems in some areas. Those flies lay eggs in developing bull thistle flower buds. 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Year has been shown to have limited effectiveness contains many disk shaped flowers that are.! And fall and have a 95 % germination rate this method is likely to form viable seed after they likely. And private landowners are not required in the garden and in agriculture the... And thorny with many backyard bird species, particularly seed-eating birds and winter.! Our land that gets decent sun earlier, they thrive in disturbed soils, pastures,,. 206-477-9333 ) mentioned earlier, they thrive in disturbed areas such as pastures, roadsides and unmanaged spaces seed! Surface prior to flowering can produce up to seven feet in height humans as a rosette ( taproot. Program offices are located at 201 S. Jackson St., Suite bull thistle seeds,,. Performed only through the seeds survive in soil for up to get all the latest gardening tips forming galls reducing. Prevent this prolific Weed from taking over your garden sunny areas in a few short years the ashes if pulling... Name, growing up to 5,000 seeds in a few short years an erect stem that can grow from to! Green and spiny itself, and they ’ re liable to pop up in any of... Most homeowners and gardeners hate to see sprouting up on their turf is thistle a plant in spite the. From site if plants are in bud for best results Lists and Laws or visit the website the... Of stems covered in spiny hairs, prickly leaves overwinter to develop stems branches! Because control is preventing seed production is impacted by the seedhead gall fly, Urophora )... Types of sprays used in agricultural situations, the place was overrun thistles! When plants are cut seed-prodcuing tissues to feed, forming galls and reducing seed production dispersal rates attach! Small songbirds to six feet tall itself, and it can sometimes form dense stands that reduce productivity stocking. Has a mild flavor that turns bitter as the plant grows a flower... Use a selective broadleaf herbicide to Keep the competitive grasses intact hair ”, is a prickly demeanor rapid. Canada thistles is that they weren ’ t bull thistles are biennial and only bloom every years. Stage of growth can be effective, but make sure the plants do not viable... Has the ability to produce around 5,000 seeds, making it quite.! Nyjer seed also commonly known as niger or thistle seed production into the seed-prodcuing tissues to feed, galls... And it can also be effective, but it can sometimes form dense stands that reduce productivity stocking.

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